Wastewater Treatment

March 9, 2021

The treating process of wastewater or sewage takes into a place known as WWTP, which is stands for Waste Water Treatment Plant. It is also referred to as Water Resource Recovery Facility(WRRF) but if you are talking in terms of domestic wastewater it is known as Sewage Treatment Plant(STP).

Wastewater Treatment is a process of use for removing the contaminants from wastewater or sewage water and automatically works using a different process to convert it wastewater into an effluent which is acceptable for the water cycle.

Steps involved in wastewater treatment plant
Steps involved in the wastewater treatment plant

Wastewater treatment plant process

Any WWTP follows 8 major steps during the wastewater treatment process. WWTP major process is as follows-

  1. Screening and Pumpinghttp://www.sewagetreatmentplants.in/what-is-the-full-form-of-wwtp-s
  2. Grit Removal
  3. Primary Settling
  4. Aeration / Activated Sludge
  5. Secondary Settling
  6. Filtration
  7. Disinfection
  8. Oxygen Uptake
  9. Sludge Treatment

WWTP steps in Detail-

Now when you aware of the steps used in treating wastewater via STP or WRRF system. We discuss each step in detail-

1- Screening and Pumping –

Wastewater first comes through screening equipment where the material like – woods piece, plastic, rags, and other non-fluid objects are removed from it. After removing Greece and other objects wastewater is pumped to the Next Step: Grit Removal

2- Grit Removal –

In Second Step, the heavy and fine material eg- sand and gravel is removed from the wastewater.

3- Primary Settling –

During this step of treatment, a large circular tank knows as clarifiers used to do some work like step 2 but in a slow process. All the material is settled in the bottom of the tank and called primary sludge. This step also includes phosphorus removal by adding chemicals into it.

4- Aeration / Activated Sludge –

This water treatment includes most of the treatment. The biological Degradation process indulges to consume pollutants by microorganisms and transformed into nitrogen, water, and cell tissue. This biological activity is happening the same as the bottom of rivers and lakes, but this process is fast than the natural way which takes years to accomplish.

5- Secondary Settling –

Secondary clarifiers allowed treated wastewater to separate from biological from aeration tank, yielding effluent is now 90% treated. The activated sludge is pumped from the bottom of clarifiers continuously and send it again to step 4.

6- Filtration –

By using micron polyester media effluent is polished. Disc Filtered material from the surface is periodically back-washed and returned to the head of the plant for treatment.

7- Disinfection –

This step assure that there is no harmful bacteria or viruses are present in treated water. Ultra disinfection is used to kills remaining bacteria to level at the discharge permit.

8- Oxygen Uptake –

In this step of WWTP, Now high quality and stabilized water are available in this process. if it is necessary to aerate to dissolved oxygen to the permitted level. The water before discharge to the river must meet the requirement set by DNR, pollutant removal is maintained at or greater than 98%.

9- Sludge Treatment –

The primary sludge is which is pumped to step three of clarifiers from the bottom of the tank. The treatment of the sludge process involves different steps. And produce minimum and organic waste.

Top and Leading Wastewater Treatment Plant Manufacturer in india
Top and Leading Wastewater Treatment Plant Manufacturer in India

This Blog is written and developed by Netsol Water Solutions, a leading company of wastewater treatment equipment. A top and leading Sewage Treatment Plant Manufacturer, Effluent Treatment Plant Manufacturer, Commercial RO Plant, Industrial RO Plant, and Water Filtration Plant.

February 20, 2021

Water is our most precious resource and access thereto may be a basic right. There are many Wastewater Treatment Companies worldwide to help and save the most precious resource on earth. However, declining water quality has become a worldwide concern. It can directly influence the value of providing water by utilities, reduce the quantity of water available to be used, and indirectly affect human health. pollution mostly occurs as a result of agriculture run-off, domestic sewage, and industrial effluents.

The growth of the water and wastewater treatment market is primarily driven by a rapidly growing population and urbanization, increasing demand for brand spanking new water resources, growing concerns of water quality and public health, and increasing prevalence of water-borne diseases.

Therefore, the water treatment plants became imperative to scale back the pollution. These plants collect effluent from industrial and municipal sources and treat it to A level of purification that permits its reuse in agriculture, industry, and whilst a potable drinking source.

Here are the top 11 water and wastewater treatment companies 

1. Netsol Water Solutions Private Limited (India)

Leading Sewage Treatment plant || Wastewater treatment plant manufacturer [Featured]

Netsol Water Solutions from its establishment in the year 2006, a pioneer in wastewater treatment and manufacturer of ace machines like Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), Small Sewage Treatment Plant, Modern Compact Sewage Treatment Plant, Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Commercial RO Plant and Industrial RO Plants. Our Clients are highly satisfied with our service. The company also deals in organic waste treatment by its machine: Geen Waste Converter and latest Water ATM solutions in India and worldwide.

2. Suez Environment S.A. (France)

Suez Environment S.A. was founded in 2000 and is headquartered in Paris, France. The company provides water management, recycling and waste recovery, water treatment, and consulting services. It operates in four business segments, namely Water Europe, Recycling and Recovery Europe, International, and Other segments.

3. Xylem Inc. (U.S.)

Xylem, Inc. was founded in 2011 and is headquartered in Rye Brook, U.S.; The Company is engaged in the design, manufacture, and service of engineered solutions for water and wastewater applications. It operates through three business segments, namely Water Infrastructure, Applied Water, and Sensus.

4. Dow Water & Process Solutions (U.S.)

Dow Water & Process Solutions was founded in 1985 and is headquartered in Edina, U.S.; The Company is engaged in the manufacturing, marketing, and sale of water purification and separation solutions.

5. Evoqua Water Technologies Corporation (U.S.)

Evoqua Water Technologies Corporation was founded in 2013 and is headquartered in Pittsburgh, U.S. The company is engaged in the designing, developing, and manufacturing of water and wastewater treatment systems. It operates through various segments, including food and beverage, life sciences, marine, mining, power, semiconductor and solar, drinking water and municipal wastewater treatment, industrial, institutional, and aquatics.

6. BASF SE (Germany)

BASF SE was founded in 1865 and is headquartered in Germany; BASF Corporation is the largest affiliate of BASF SE, involved in the manufacturing and supplying of various products. It operates through five business segments, namely Chemicals, Performance Products, Functional Material, and Solutions, Agriculture Solutions, and Oil & Gas.

7. 3M (U.S.)

3M was founded in 1902 and is headquartered in Minnesota, U.S. It operates as a diversified technology company worldwide. The company is engaged in the automotive, commercial solutions, communications, design and construction, electronics, energy, health care, manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, safety, and transportation sectors.

8. Pentair Plc (U.S.)

Pentair plc was founded in 1966 and is headquartered in London, U.K. The company is engaged in the design and manufacture of energy, food and beverage, industrial, infrastructure, and residential & commercial. The company operates through two segments, Water and Electrical.

9. ITT Inc. (U.S.)

ITT Inc. was founded in 1920 and is headquartered at White Plains, U.S. The company manufactures and sells engineered critical components and customized technology solutions for the energy, transportation, and industrial markets worldwide.

10. Kingspan Environment Ltd. (Ireland)

Kingspan Environmental Ltd. was founded in 1965 and is headquartered in Co. Armagh Portadown, Northern Ireland, U.K. The company is engaged in insulated panel systems, insulation, architectural facade systems, controlled environments, ductwork, wastewater management, and access floors.

11. United Utilities Group PLC (U.K.)

United Utilities Group PLC was founded in 1995 and is headquartered in Warrington, U.K. The company provides water and wastewater services in the North West of England. The company serves approximately 3 million households; and approximately 200,000 businesses, including manufacturing companies and small shops

Scope of the Report:

Water and Wastewater Treatment Market and Technologies Market of the companies some major criteria are given below-            

  • Treatment Technologies
  • Delivery Equipment
  • Treatment Chemicals
  • Instrumentation

The author of this blog is not taking any responsibility for their ranking and listing of the companies ranking in the market. The blog is written on a research basis and following some criteria. Feel free to connect with us for adding and modification in the Listing.

February 9, 2021

The basic function of wastewater treatment is to speed up the natural processes by which water is purified. There are two basic stages in the treatment of wastes, primary and secondary, which are outlined here. In the primary stage, solids are allowed to settle and removed from wastewater. The secondary stage uses biological processes to further purify wastewater. Sometimes, these stages are combined into one operation.

What is a wastewater treatment system?


A wastewater treatment plant is a Combination of systems made up of several individual technologies that used for your specific wastewater treatment needs.

Sewage Treatment is rarely a static process, and a wastewater treatment system that is engineered to accommodate fluctuations in treatment needs will go a long way in avoiding costly replacements/upgrades down the line.

An efficient and well-designed wastewater treatment system should be able to handle:

  • process variations in contamination and flow
  • variations in water chemistry needs and required chemical volumes adjustments
  • possible changes in water effluent requirements

For a detailed information stage and flow diagram of sewage treatment plant/wastewater treatment plant, you can watch the complete video.

Call: +91-9650608473 or enquiry@netsolwater.com for any query of recquirement.

December 31, 2020

Biological treatment processes are a crucial component in many wastewater treatment systems. They’re one of the foremost efficient and effective ways of reducing organic material within the wastewater. There are quite a few of them that are researched and used over several decades. However, one among the foremost widely used conventional biological treatment processes is that the activated sludge process (ASP). Many sewage treatment plants use ASP within their secondary treatment steps thanks to the human and animal organic matter in the inlet waters of wastewater treatment plants.

The term “activated sludge” comes from the very fact that the sludge contains live bacteria and protozoa that actively digest and break down sewage. it’s different from the sludge solids removed following a settling process therein way, with the addition of being odorless.

The process itself involves pumping the effluent from the first treatment clarification step into an outsized tank that contains the activated sludge. The mixture is subjected to aeration, either from submerged or surface aerators. This provides oxygen to the effluent that the bacteria can then use to interrupt down the organic waste. After a sufficient amount of hydraulic retention time, the resulting slurry is pumped into a clarification system or tank to settle out the remaining solids. The treated water is pumped far away from the highest to any subsequent polishing filtration and disinfection while the sludge at rock bottom is re-circulated back to the ASP tank to reseed the leftover activated sludge.

We have included the most potential disadvantages of the activated sludge process to be discussed below.

Hydraulic Retention Time


Perhaps the foremost important aspect of any wastewater treatment process is time. Any treatment solution needs time to run its course and certain treatments take longer than others. ASP is one of those solutions. Thanks to the ratio of sewage to sludge and the way the method occurs, the hydraulic retention time of ASP can take most of each day (12-24 hrs.) or up to many days (3-5) to realize appropriate levels of treatment results.

Sludge Retention Time / Recycling

Time also applies to the medium of the reaction. In this case, the medium is that the activated sludge. With regards to the sludge itself, an ASP is an open system and there’s a special mass rate entering the system than there’s exiting the system.

Overtime (without a recirculation system) all of the activated sludge within the tank would get pumped out. the thought is to maximize the time the sludge spends within the system. this point is to make sure there’s enough biomass to interrupt down the incoming organic matter; hence the necessity for recirculation.

Therefore, as most suspended growth biological processes or fixed film processes including MBBR have higher sludge retention times, ASP tends to possess lower sludge retention times.


Due to both of the points stated above, reactor tanks for the activated sludge process (ASP) tend to be quite large so as to treat larger volumes of effluent. this needs large areas of land needed for his or her operation.

Changes in Volume or Character of Sewage

ASP can treat large quantities of varied organic materials, but the reaction depends on variables that make it quite vulnerable to an error in conditions outside of these it had been designed for.

In particular, changes in sewage volume and sewage characteristics may result in decreased treatment quality or treatment upsets. If a treatment plant decided it wanted to extend its treatment volume or began treating wastewater from a replacement and different source, the ASP reactors would typically be got to be completely redesigned accordingly.

Sludge Disposal

As are often expected from handling a treatment process that uses sludge to treat sewage, there are considerable volumes of sludge that require to be disposed of after this process. Larger sludge volumes mean higher associated disposal costs.

Operation / Supervision

Biology may be a complex subject; therefore, it stands to reason that a biological water treatment process would be complex in certain aspects. On a broad scale, the general process seems simple enough. However, the planning and operation of an Activated sludge reactor typically require experts in biological systems design to watch it. A system like this needs a touch more skilled supervision than simply watching out for mechanical failures and monitoring pH. There must be highly skilled operators and supervisors which will check for the viability and efficiency of the bacteria and protozoa within the sludge to stop system upsets.

Issues with Sludge Settling

Some of the most important issues with the activated sludge process reveal themselves in how everything settles call at the secondary clarification process. Sometimes, the solids don’t compact alright at rock bottom and therefore the sludge has high water content.

Sometimes, the supernatant (floating material) has higher turbidity than you would like which may affect the top effluent water quality. Other issues may result in decreased concentrations of return activated sludge.


For any queries and consultants regarding Sewage Treatment Plant and Effluent Treatment Plant or Commercial RO Plant, please call us on +91-9650608473 or you can write to us on enquiry@netsolwater.com.

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We are the leading Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) Manufacturer & Supplier, in the Delhi-Noida, India.
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