Wastewater Treatment

June 1, 2024

In the field of wastewater treatment, innovation is key to addressing the ever-growing challenges posed by urbanization and industrial expansion. One technology that has gained significant traction is the high-rate activated sludge BIO FOR-F system, a cutting-edge solution that combines efficiency, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. This technology has revolutionized the way we approach wastewater management.

The BIO FOR-F system is a departure from traditional activated sludge processes, offering a compact and energy-efficient solution for treating various types of wastewater.

Understanding the Activated Sludge Process

Before going into the intricacies of the BIO FOR-F technology, it is essential to understand the fundamental principles of the activated sludge process. This widely used technique involves the introduction of microorganisms, known as activated sludge, into wastewater. These microorganisms consume organic matter and nutrients present in the wastewater, facilitating their removal.

The activated sludge process typically consists of several stages, including aeration, sedimentation, and sludge recycling. In the aeration stage, air is introduced into the wastewater, promoting the growth and activity of aerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms break down organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide and water. The sedimentation stage allows the activated sludge to settle, separating the treated water from the sludge.

One of the key advantages of the activated sludge process is its ability to handle a wide range of wastewater types, from municipal to industrial sources. However, traditional methods can be energy-intensive, require large footprints, and may struggle with certain types of contaminants, such as nutrient removal.

BIO FOR-F Technology

Netsol Water’s BIO FOR-F technology represents a significant step forward in the field of wastewater treatment. This innovative system combines the principles of the activated sludge process with advanced engineering and process optimization to achieve superior treatment efficiency, reduced energy consumption, and a smaller footprint.

In this BIO FOR-F technology lies a unique bioreactor design that facilitates enhanced biological activity and optimized mixing. The bioreactor incorporates a series of interconnected compartments, each designed to promote specific biological processes essential for effective wastewater treatment.

One of the key features of the BIO FOR-F system is its ability to operate at high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations, typically ranging from 8,000 to 12,000 mg/L. This high MLSS concentration allows for a smaller bioreactor volume, reducing the overall footprint of the treatment plant. Additionally, the system employs advanced aeration techniques, such as fine bubble diffusers, to optimize oxygen transfer and minimize energy consumption.

The BIO FOR-F technology helps in removing various contaminants from wastewater, including organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The bioreactor design and operational parameters are optimized to promote simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes, ensuring effective nutrient removal without the need for additional treatment stages.

Furthermore, the system incorporates advanced sludge management techniques, such as the use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) or separate sludge thickening and dewatering units. This approach minimizes sludge production and facilitates efficient sludge handling and disposal, further reducing operational costs and environmental impact.

Applications and Benefits

The versatility of the BIO FOR-F technology makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, including municipal wastewater treatment, industrial effluent treatment, and even decentralized wastewater solutions for remote or challenging locations.

Netsol Water has successfully simplemented the BIO FOR-F technology in numerous sewage treatment plants (STPs) across various regions. One notable example is their involvement in the construction and operation of STPs in several cities and industrial areas.

Furthermore, the BIO FOR-F technology offers advantages in terms of flexibility and scalability. The modular design of the bioreactors allows for easy expansion or adaptation to changing treatment requirements, ensuring long-term sustainability and reliability.

Netsol Water’s commitment to innovation and continuous improvement has led to the development of advanced control and monitoring systems integrated into the BIO FOR-F technology.


The high-rate activated sludge BIO FOR-F technology represents a significant breakthrough in the field of wastewater treatment. By combining advanced biological processes, optimized reactor design, and state-of-the-art engineering, this technology offers a comprehensive solution for efficient and sustainable wastewater management.

Netsol Water’s successful implementation of this technology in various STPs showcases its real-world effectiveness and highlights the company’s commitment to delivering innovative and reliable solutions.

As urbanization and industrial growth continue to exert pressure on water resources, technologies like the BIO FOR-F system will play a crucial role in addressing wastewater challenges.

Do you need advice or assistance in selecting the best water and wastewater treatment unit? We have solutions for all your problems!

Let us know your problem, and our experts will make sure that it goes away.

For assistance or related queries,

Call on +91-965-060-8473 Or write us at enquiry@netsolwater.com

If you want to know about the best commercial RO plant manufacturers in Delhi.

June 1, 2024

Biological filtration and oxygenated reactors are essential components in wastewater treatment plants. They facilitate the removal of organic matter, suspended solids, and other pollutants through biological processes. These systems rely on microorganisms to break down contaminants, ensuring efficient wastewater purification.

Importance in Wastewater Treatment and Environmental Applications

Wastewater treatment is crucial for protecting public health and the environment. Biological filtration and oxygenated reactors play a vital role in reducing the organic load and nutrient levels in wastewater. This prevents the discharge of untreated effluents into water bodies, which could lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, and damage to aquatic ecosystems.

Principles of Biological Filtration

Biological filtration involves passing wastewater through a porous medium, such as sand, gravel, or synthetic materials. Microorganisms, including bacteria and protozoa, attach to the filter media and form a biological film or slime layer. As the wastewater flows through the filter, organic matter and suspended solids are removed through various mechanisms, including adsorption, entrapment, and biodegradation.

Types of Biological Filters

  1. Trickling Filters: Wastewater is distributed over a bed of highly permeable media, allowing it to trickle downward while microorganisms attached to the media break down organic matter.
  2. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs): Partially submerged discs rotate through the wastewater, providing a large surface area for microorganisms to grow and treat the influent.
  3. Submerged Biological Filters: These filters are fully submerged in the wastewater, with the media providing a surface for microorganisms to attach and degrade pollutants.

Oxygenated Reactors

Oxygenated reactors are designed to facilitate aerobic biological treatment processes. They introduce oxygen into the wastewater, promoting the growth of aerobic microorganisms that can effectively degrade organic matter.

Types of Oxygenated Reactors

Common types of oxygenated reactors include:

  1. Activated Sludge Reactors: Wastewater is aerated and mixed with a concentrated culture of microorganisms (activated sludge) to facilitate aerobic biodegradation.
  2. Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs): These combine activated sludge treatment with membrane filtration, enabling effective solid-liquid separation and producing high-quality effluent.
  3. Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBRs): Small plastic carriers provide a large surface area for biofilm growth, allowing efficient treatment while minimizing footprint.


Biological filtration and oxygenated reactors are widely employed in various settings, including:

  1. Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: Treating domestic sewage and protecting water bodies from pollution.
  2. Industrial Wastewater Treatment: Removing organic and inorganic contaminants from industrial effluents before discharge.
  3. Aquaculture Systems: Maintaining water quality and removing waste products in fish farming operations.
  4. Constructed Wetlands: Utilizing natural biological processes for wastewater treatment in engineered wetland systems.


Netsol Water, a leading manufacturer and supplier of wastewater treatment plants, incorporates biological filtration and oxygenated reactor technologies in their Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Their advanced systems make use of microorganisms to effectively remove pollutants and produce high-quality effluent. By combining expertise in biological treatment processes with innovative design, Netsol Water ensures efficient and sustainable wastewater management for municipalities, industries, and various applications.

Do you need advice or assistance in selecting the best water and wastewater treatment unit? We have solutions for all your problems!

Let us know your problem, and our experts will make sure that it goes away.

For assistance or related queries,

Call on +91-965-060-8473 Or write us at enquiry@netsolwater.com

August 1, 2023

In recent years, the growing concern for environmental sustainability and water conservation has prompted various industries to seek innovative solutions for wastewater management. One such solution gaining popularity is the Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) plant. This article aims to explore the importance of ZLD plants for industries, their benefits, and the reasons why they are becoming a necessity in the modern world.

What is ZLD?

Zero Liquid Discharge, as the name suggests, is an innovative wastewater treatment process that eliminates the discharge of liquid effluents from industries. Unlike conventional wastewater treatment, which discharges partially treated water into water bodies, ZLD plants aim to recover almost 100% of the wastewater for reuse or safe disposal. This process results in minimal water wastage, thereby ensuring a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to industrial water management.

How does a ZLD plant work?

A ZLD plant employs a combination of physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes to achieve comprehensive wastewater purification. The initial stages involve pretreatment to remove large solids and contaminants. The treated water then undergoes advanced treatment methods like reverse osmosis, evaporation, and crystallization, which effectively concentrate the remaining dissolved solids. The final step involves treating the concentrated brine, resulting in pure water suitable for reuse or responsible disposal.

Read: What is Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Technology of Wastewater Treatment and its working?

The Need for Zero Liquid Discharge Plants

  1. Escalating water scarcity
    As global water scarcity intensifies, industries face increasing pressure to reduce their water consumption and limit pollution. ZLD plants offer an effective solution by recycling and reusing wastewater, minimizing the strain on freshwater sources.
  2. Stricter environmental regulations                                                                                                                             Governments worldwide are tightening regulations to protect water bodies from industrial pollution. ZLD plants help industries comply with these stringent regulations and prevent legal complications.
  3. Mitigating industrial pollution
    Industrial effluents often contain harmful pollutants that can adversely impact the environment and public health. ZLD plants ensure that no untreated wastewater is discharged, preventing contamination of natural water sources.
  4. Reusable resources and cost-effectiveness
    By treating and reusing wastewater, industries can reduce their reliance on freshwater sources. This not only contributes to sustainable water management but also leads to long-term cost savings on water supply and wastewater disposal.

Advantages of Zero Liquid Discharge Plants

  1. Reduced water consumption
    ZLD plants significantly decrease water usage by recycling treated wastewater, promoting a circular economy approach.
  2. Minimized environmental impact
    By preventing the discharge of untreated or partially treated effluents, ZLD plants help protect aquatic ecosystems and preserve biodiversity.
  3. Enhanced resource recovery
    ZLD plants enable the recovery of valuable by-products, such as salts and minerals, from concentrated brine, turning waste into a resource.
  4. Compliance with regulations
    Industries that implement ZLD systems can ensure compliance with environmental regulations, avoiding penalties and reputational damage.
  5. Long-term cost savings
    While the initial setup costs of ZLD plants may be high, the long-term savings in water consumption and waste disposal expenses make them financially viable investments.

 Implementing a Zero Liquid Discharge Plant

  1. Assessment and feasibility study
    Before setting up a ZLD plant, industries must conduct a comprehensive assessment of their water consumption, wastewater characteristics, and potential cost savings.
  2. Process selection
    Based on the assessment, industries can choose the most suitable ZLD process that aligns with their specific needs and effluent composition.
  3. Technology considerations
    Investing in advanced technologies and equipment is crucial for the successful implementation and efficient operation of a ZLD plant.

Industries Benefiting from Zero Liquid Discharge Plants

  1. Textile industry
    The textile sector is a significant water consumer and generates considerable wastewater. ZLD plants can help textile manufacturers reduce their environmental footprint and ensure sustainable production practices.
  2. Chemical manufacturing
    Chemical industries often produce hazardous effluents that require careful treatment. ZLD plants provide a safe and eco-friendly solution for managing chemical waste.
  3. Pharmaceutical sector
    Pharmaceutical companies produce complex wastewater streams containing various contaminants. ZLD plants can effectively purify these wastewaters, safeguarding both public health and the environment.
  4. Power generation
    Power plants consume vast amounts of water for cooling purposes. Adopting ZLD can help power generation facilities conserve water and adhere to environmental standards.

Overcoming Challenges in Zero Liquid Discharge Implementation

  1. High capital investment
    One of the primary challenges in adopting ZLD is the initial capital investment required for setting up advanced treatment facilities. However, the long-term benefits outweigh this cost.
  2. Energy consumption
    ZLD plants consume energy, mainly during the evaporation and crystallization processes. Industries should explore renewable energy options to mitigate this impact.
  3. Concentrate management
    The disposal or reuse of concentrated brine, known as “concentrate,” can pose logistical and environmental challenges that require careful consideration.
  4. Regulatory compliance
    Adhering to evolving environmental regulations demands continuous monitoring and adaptation to ensure the ZLD plant’s compliance.

Future Trends in Zero Liquid Discharge Technology

  1. Advancements in membrane technology
    Continuous research and development are leading to more efficient and cost-effective membrane technologies for ZLD plants.
  2. Integration of renewable energy sources
    Industries are exploring the integration of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, to power ZLD plants and reduce their carbon footprint.
  3. Water footprint accounting
    Water footprint analysis will become an essential tool for industries to measure their water usage, identify inefficiencies, and optimize water management strategies.

The adoption of Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) plants by industries is no longer just a sustainability initiative; it has become a necessity to combat water scarcity, protect the environment, and comply with stringent regulations. ZLD plants offer numerous benefits, including reduced water consumption, minimized environmental impact, resource recovery, and long-term cost savings. Although implementing ZLD may present some challenges, continuous technological advancements and growing awareness of water conservation will drive its widespread adoption across various industries. Connect Netsol Water the best and leading ZLD plant manufacturer in India, Call: +91-9650608473.

  1. Is Zero Liquid Discharge mandatory for all industries?
    While ZLD is not mandatory for all industries, its adoption is highly encouraged, especially for water-intensive sectors and those producing hazardous wastewater.
  2. Are ZLD plants suitable for small-scale industries?
    Yes, ZLD plants can be customized to suit the needs of small-scale industries, ensuring they too can benefit from sustainable wastewater management.
  3. Can ZLD plants operate in remote areas with limited resources?
    Yes, ZLD plants can be designed to operate in remote areas, and the integration of renewable energy sources can further enhance their suitability for such locations.
  4. Are there any government incentives for implementing ZLD?
    Some governments offer financial incentives and tax benefits to industries that adopt ZLD technology as part of their environmental conservation efforts.
  5. Can zero liquid discharge plant recover valuable resources from wastewater?
    Yes, ZLD plants can recover valuable resources like salts and minerals from concentrated brine, promoting resource circularity and reducing waste.

November 18, 2022

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Plants – An Effective Wastewater Treatment Solution

A technological approach to purifying water in which all water is recovered and contaminants are converted to solid waste is known as “zero liquid discharge.” ZLD is the most challenging goal to attain since recovery costs and challenges increase as wastewater concentrations grow. Although many water treatment systems strive to boost freshwater recovery and minimize waste. Concentrations of salinity, organics, and scaling compounds, all rise, adding to the expense of regulating these increases. Combining water treatment technologies that can handle wastewater when the toxins are concentrated allows for ZLD.

With so many benefits to offer from a ZLD one becomes curious to know about it keenly and contribute to the environment. Let’s settle your curiosity and know the zero liquid discharge more elaborately!

Zero liquid discharge plant:

You can turn your waste into no-waste by using a zero-liquid discharge plant. These sturdy, portable systems handle wastewater from industrial processes and salvage priceless goods from recycling procedures. Materials are successfully separated from water or other wet materials, and they are then converted to solid waste that may be sold, reused, or disposed of more effectively. ZLD systems are advantageous to the environment and your bottom line, and they are simple to modify to match your changing demands and regulatory requirements.

A ZLD treatment system, as the name indicates, uses cutting-edge modern water treatment procedures to reduce liquid waste at the conclusion of your industrial process to zero. A zero Liquid Discharge treatment system that is effective and properly thought out should be able to:

  • Adapt the fluctuations in the flow and contamination of waste
  • Allow for necessary changes to chemical amounts
  • More of your liquid waste can be recovered for reuse.
  • Treat your waste to recover valuable byproducts.
  • Create a solid or dry cake for disposal.

Your business will be able to comply with strict effluent standards and Electric Power Generating Effluent Guidelines with the use of a ZLD treatment system. Just bear in mind that the criteria for your facility will change depending on whether you are discharging to the environment under a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System or into a publicly owned treatment works.

What components make up a fundamental ZLD plant?

The precise parts of a ZLD treatment system will primarily rely on

(1) Amount of dissolved material present in the waste,

(2) Flow rate needed for the system, and

(3) What particular pollutants are there. But often, a fundamental ZLD treatment system consists of some combination of:

  • A clarifier or reactor to remove hardness, metals, and silica
  • Chemical feed to aid in the coagulation, flocculation, or precipitation of any metals and suspended solids
  • A filter press beside an evaporator or after pretreatment concentrates secondary solid waste.
  • UF: Ultrafiltration (UF) to eliminate any traces of suspended particles that are still present and stop fouling, scaling, and/or corrosion later in the treatment process.
  • RO: Brine concentrators to further concentrate the reject RO stream or reject from electrodialysis to further concentrate the dissolved solids removed by reverse osmosis (RO), which removes the majority of dissolved solids from the water stream in the main phases of concentration.
  • Evaporator: In the final stages of waste concentration before the crystallizer, an evaporator is used to vaporize access water.
  • Crystallizer: Using a crystallizer, boil out any residual liquid to produce a dry, solid cake that may be disposed of.

These standard components are sufficient depending on the requirements of your plant and process, but if your plant needs a system that offers a little bit more customization, you could need to add additional features or technologies. ZLD is a highly customized process because of the wide range of industries it is used in and the many waste streams it produces, and these add-ons will vary depending on your facility’s specific requirements.

What Netsol offers!

Our international service network employs devoted experts that are informed about your sector. Whenever and wherever you need parts or assistance, we are here to provide it.

For maximum uptime, availability, and optimization, Netsol takes care of all your needs throughout the equipment’s life cycle, including setup, maintenance, support, and monitoring services.

For any other support, inquiries, or product purchases, call on +91-9650608473 or email at enquiry@netsolwater.com

You may also read this How does reverse osmosis purifies water?


July 19, 2022

According to the CPCB‘s legislative regulations, numerous infrastructures such as apartments, commercial construction projects, educational institutions, townships, and area development projects that meet specified conditions must include sewage treatment plants. To ensure effective and safe operation of the machinery, the guideline regulations address factors such as STP site, STP technology to adopt, STP functioning, and STP maintenance.

Treated Sewage Standards by STP

The treated sewage by a sewage treatment plant should meet the following standards.

S. No. Parameter Required Standards
1 pH 6.5-8.5
2 BOD(5th day) <10mg/l
3 COD <50mg/l
4 Suspended Solids <10mg/l
5 Ammoniacal Nitrogen <5mg/l
6 Total Nitrogen <5mg/l
7 Fecal Coliform <100 MPN/100 ml

CPCB New Norms for Treated Sewage Standards by STP

Which are the Indian standards for sewage disposal?

Sensor installation guidelines

Sensors for monitoring sewage parameters such as BOD, COD, TSS, flow, and pH are required. The following are the CPCB’s suggested sensor types and communication protocols.

Parameter Measurement Type Sensor Type Communication protocol
pH Inline Ion Selective Glass Electrodes RS 485 Communication with Modbus
TSS Inline Turbidity to TSS correlation with
Nephelometric technique
RS 485 Communication with Modbus
BOD Inline UV-Vis Spectrophotometry
& combustion(Double beam
with entire spectrum scanning
RS 485 Communication with Modbus
COD Inline UV-Vis Spectrophotometry
& combustion(Double beam
with entire spectrum scanning
RS 485 Communication with Modbus
Flow Inline Electromagnetic Flow Measurement RS 485 Communication with Modbus

Sewage Treatment Plant Manufacturer

The Technology of STP

The approved STP technologies to go with are-

A. Activated Sludge Process(ASP) (only when above 500 KLD sewage is generated).

B. Membrane Bio Reactor(MBR)

C. Moving Bed Bio Reactor(MBBR)

You Can call or message  us any time as we one of the leading sewage treatment plant manufacturer in India having world class technology of wastewater treatment. Call now: 09605608473

Commercial RO Plant Range 50 LPH-2000 lph price 35000

July 12, 2022

There are several operating costs involved with the operation and treatment of wastewater. Operating costs are the charges related to the conservation, performing and covering of the factory. And, these costs can add up to 50 of the total periodic costs. It’s important to estimate the affiliated operating costs before getting a wastewater treatment factory. Then, we’ve calculated an approximate division of expenditure for your better understanding.

What are the different kind of operating costs involved in wastewater treatment?

Major factors that affect operation costs are

  1. Size and capacity of the factory
  2. Topography and geographical position of the factory
  3. Characteristics of the wastewater generated
  4. Technologies and the kind of treatment system
  5. system of disposal used
  6. Force of energy
  7. Degree of robotization
  8. Organisation and conservation of the factory


The pool at the factory is one of the major factors that have a major influence on the operating costs. And, the number of working staff employed at the factory depends on the following

  1. The scale of the factory
  2. The treatment procedure and systems
  3. The degree of robotization
  4. The effectiveness of the labor force


The costs for energy cover nearly 10- 30 of the total operating costs. The following are the areas where energy gets consumed in a wastewater treatment factory and adds up to the total costs

  1. Pumping Stations
  2. defenses
  3. Aerated Beach Traps
  4. Primary Sedimentation Tanks
  5. Aeration Tanks
  6. Secondary Sedimentation Tanks
  7. Thickener
  8. Sludge Dewatering bias
  9. Digestion

Disposal is an important aspect when calculating the operating costs. It includes the costs involved in the disposal of sewage sludge, wireworks, beach and external waste.
These costs can differ between 15 and 50 of the total operating costs. Generally, they largely depend on

The size of the STP Plant

  1. National regulations for the disposal of organic accoutrements like sewage sludge, etc.
  2. Original conditions and request price conditions
  3. Chemicals and Accoutrements Used
  4. Chemicals and accoutrements take up to 5- 7 of the total operating costs. Their costs substantially depend on
  5. The characteristics of the wastewater and its discharge
  6. The named chemicals
  7. Amounts kept in stock and copping deals
  8. The request situation and the price structure of the chemicals

* Approximate Data

Eclectic costs are the costs which largely depend on the type of wastewater treatment factory and can range between 5 and 15 of the total operating costs. These are

  1. Pollution Charges
  2. executive costs like insurances, office outfit etc.
  3. Rents and vacancies
  4. External costs for consultations, conservation workshop, laboratory analysis, etc.

We at Netsol Water one of the India’s largest and latest technology driven sewage treatment plant manufacturers. Our STP plant available with different range from 2KLD and up-to 10 MLD. Call Us at : +91-9605068473 for any enquiry or product related query.

July 12, 2022

The current epidemic has majorly impacted the artificial force chains encyclopedically. And, it’s posing severe challenges for the pulp and paper assiduity each over the world. It includes companies that produce pulp, paper, paperboard and several other cellulose- grounded products. The sector involves colorful fields similar as husbandry, forestry, biology, chemicals, distribution, and transportation. therefore, enwrapping an important position in the global frugality.
With the spread of Coronavirus and closing down of services, sodalities and seminaries due to the lockdown, the demand for copier paper and printing paper has seen a notable downfall.
still, on the other hand, it has also handed an unusual possibility for the pulp and paper manufacturing sector related to rising demand for particular hygiene paper products, food packaging products, corrugated packaging accoutrements , paper for medical inventories, etc.

The Rising Demand for Pulp & Paper Products

Hygiene affiliated paper products

  1. The unforeseen demand for these products is largely credited to the growing mindfulness among the public related to particular safety and hygiene.
  2. It includes disposable paper apkins, detergent wipes, face masks, disposal paper undergarments and other particular hygiene- related products.

Paper- grounded medicinal material

  1.  Paper can play a special type of carrier endowed with functions similar as filtration, adsorption, antibacterial and discovery by chemical, physical or natural design which can be used for producing colorful medicinal products like paper electrodes, paper- groundedmicro-fluidic chips, biosensors and natural test paper.

Corrugated packaging accoutrements

  • These accoutrements are essential for the transportation of food, life products, drugs, and medical outfit.
    also, as numerous places have still not opened up for retail, it has accelerated the growth of online shopping. Thereby, adding the demand for corrugated packaging accoutrements .

Food packaging products

  1. As the restaurants too are facing the consequences of the lockdown, the food delivery mode is greatly working for them.
  2. thus, packaging products like paper boxes, straws, paper bags, etc have come new growth areas for the pulp and paper assiduity.

Where does the Pulp & Paper Industry need our backing?

Manufacturing paper involves the operation of new or recycled pulp including chemicals similar as humus, CaCO3, talc and/ or TiO2 to bring the white colour in the paper.
And, to manufacture a paper with different parcels, it requires chemicals similar as bounce, latex, colours, aluminium sulphateetc. And, these processes of manufacturing, colouring and decolouring bear a huge quantum of water. As a result, there’s a huge generation of wastewater.
The recycling of this wastewater involves anaerobic treatment where there are two major units- aeration receptacle and sedimentation receptacle to remove patches and reclaim the waste.
The composition of this wastewater depends on the product process and raw accoutrements used.
farther, the emigrations released while treating the wastewater are veritably dangerous.
This issue can be resolved by using largely advanced technologies which have the capability to control these emigrations, thereby, reflecting the minimal impact on the terrain.

How can Netsol Water help?

Being a business enterprise ourselves in the field of wastewater treatment, we understand the difficulties being faced by the pulp & paper assiduity in getting back to starting its operations. thus, we’re introducing our veritably effective and accessible- Plug & Play Recycling Model, which we’ve come up with after thorough evaluation and exploration. We are India’s largest Sewage Treatment Plant Manufacturer for Paper Industry.
The model is designed in such a way that it’ll help in reducing the imbalance in cost and profit situations caused due to the COVID- 19, while at the same time addressing the need for treating wastewater optimally.

The highlights of our Plug & Play Sewage Treatment Plant are
  1. Ready to use outfit
  2. No original CAPEX needed
  3. Quick Rallying
  4. Pay per use model
  5. Reimbursement options on Zero Liquid Discharge
  6. Flexible renting results along with short- term rental options

This Plug & Play STP model has been initiated by us to give a strong foundation for the Pulp & Paper Industry to insure they achieve their sustainability morals. We also deal in Commercial RO Plant, ETP plant and one of the largest sewage treatment plant manufacturers

July 11, 2022

I get asked now and also what the stylish books are for learning further about wastewater treatment. There are numerous, numerous excellent specialized references available but then I want to punctuate just those that I find myself coming back to most frequently. My work brings me into both artificial and external shops so numerous of the books you find then will be particularly helpful for those of you who also work in an artificial wastewater treatment terrain.

These have a best coverage over sewage treatment plant manufacturing as well as designing.
In the meantime I encourage you to add this lately published book to your specialized library. I suppose you’ll find yourself constantly using this excellent text as your preferred wastewater reference for a long time to come!!

For Wastewater Treatment

Henze, Mogens, Mark C.M. Loosdrecht, George A. Ekama, and Damir Brdjanovic. Biological Wastewater Treatment: Principles, Modelling and Design. London: IWA Publishing, 2008.

A superb textbook that I reference often. This is an advanced text so you won’t find it to be the easiest to read. But the effort you put into working your way through this book will be rewarding, adding to your knowledge and insight of wastewater treatment.

Berne, F. and J. Cordonnier. Industrial Water Treatment: Refining, Petrochemicals and Gas Processing Techniques. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1995.

Bratby, John. Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment. 2nd ed. London, UK: IWA Publishing, 2006.

The following is a series of books from Michael H. Gerardi. I encourage you to get all of these. I refer to them over and over again. For the practicing operator you won’t find a better source of information you can use in your daily wastewater activities.

Gerardi, Michael H. Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

—. Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

—. The Microbiology of Anaerobic Digesters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

—. Wastewater Bacteria. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

—. Microscopic Examination of the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

—. Troubleshooting the Sequencing Batch Reactor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Grady, C. P. Leslie Jr., Glen T. Daigger, and Henry C. Lim. Biological Wastewater Treatment. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1999.

IWA Task Group. Respirometry in Control of the Activated Sludge Process: Benchmarking Control Strategies. Scientific and Technical Report No. 11. London, UK: IWA Publishing, 2002.

—. Activated Sludge Separation Problems: Theory, Control Measures, Practical Experience. Scientific and Technical Report No. 16. London, UK: IWA Publishing, 2008.

Jenkins, David, Michael G. Richard, and Glen T. Daigger. Manual on the Causes and Control of Activated Sludge Bulking, Foaming, and Other Solids Separation Problems. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2004.

Kim, Yong H. Coagulants and Flocculants. Littleton, CO: Tall Oaks Publishing, 1995.

Lee, C. C. and Shun Dar Lin. Handbook of Environmental Engineering Calculations. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Nalco Company. The Nalco Water Handbook. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009.

This is a great, very-easy-to-read, reference book that covers so many different water and wastewater treatment topics. A book I include whenever I’m doing research

Sanin, F. Dilek, William W. Clarkson, and P. Aarne Vesilind. Sludge Engineering: The Treatment and Disposal of Wastewater Sludges. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: 2011.

Spellman, Frank R. and Joanne E. Drinan. Wastewater Stabilization Ponds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.

Turovskiy, Izrail S. and P. K. Mathai. Wastewater Sludge Processing. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Design Manual for Municipal Wastewater Stabilization Ponds. 1983.

Young, James C. and Robert M. Cowan. Respirometry for Environmental Science and Engineering. Springdale, AR: SJ Enterprises, 2004

IWA Publishing – Biological Wastewater Treatment Series – Six Book Collection

Andreoli, Cleverson Vitorio and Carlos Augusto de Lemos Chernicharo. Sludge Treatment and Disposal. Volume 6. London: IWA Publishing, 2007.

de Lemos Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto. Anaerobic Reactors. Volume 4. London: IWA Publishing, 2007.

von Sperling, Marcos. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal. Volume 1. London: IWA Publishing, 2007.

—. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment. Volume 2. London: IWA Publishing, 2007.

—. Waste Stabilisation Ponds. Volume 3. London: IWA Publishing, 2007.

—. Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors. Volume 5. London: IWA Publishing, 2007.

The books listed above from IWA Publishing are free to download as PDF files below. This is very generous on the part of IWA to make these excellent references available to everyone at no charge. I actually bought all of these textbooks before they became freely available. Now I keep a copy of these on my computer. You should do the same.

September 6, 2021

Who is the largest manufacturer of Sewage Treatment Plants and Effluent Treatment Plants in India?

Netsol Water is the leading wastewater treatment plant manufacturer in India. We take immense pleasure in designing and manufacturing machines to save the Earth and its resources, especially water. We continuously strive for making our Environment eco-friendly.

Our vision is to provide sustainable and affordable management solutions to cope up with the challenges of increasing urbanization, industrialization, and population growth. Our products manufactured have a high quality, and we work to provide eco-conscious solutions that are reliable, cost-effective, and durable.

Why choose us?

  • We give essential importance to the quality and have an eye to eye detail to check the quality is not compromised. ‘Quality is the core competency of our business.
  • We help in providing proactive ideas and solutions.
  • We believe in water recycling and conservation.
  • We provide world-class services after the sale.

In this article, we try to make you aware of how sewage and effluent treatment plants work and how we provide better economic solutions so that nothing is compromised in quality.

What are Sewage treatment plants?

Sewage treatment plants are used to purify the wastewater received from industries, households, and commercial sources. It removes the impurities by removing toxic substances present that may cause damage to our environment.

Netsol offers compact sewage treatment plants using polypropylene tanks with a guarantee of 20 years, no smell, simple, scalable, and reliable. Some of the key features of the product are as follows:

  • No operator is required.Sewage Treatment Plant Manufacturer - 9650608473
  • Completes all the compliance requirements.
  • Treated water can be reused for horticulture.
  • No sand and charcoal filters are necessary.
  • Energy Efficient up to 75% saving.
  • Underground installation possible.z

What are Effluent treatment plants?

Effluent treatment plants are used to treat the effluent arriving from various sources like industries and factories. The wastewater released from them contains hazardous and toxic substances which may prove to be harmful to our environment.

Netsol offers compact Effluent treatment plants ranging from small, medium, and large scale i.e. from 5KLD to 500 MLD.

Some of the key applications of the product are here as follows:

Netsol Water incorporates the latest technology that conforms to the predefined industrial standards and quality. Therefore you don’t have to worry about the quality and services. We are one of the most cost-effective companies in manufacturing sewage treatment plants and effluent treatment plants.

Contact us to discuss your requirements. We can be reached at 9650608473 and 9650795306, or feel free to leave your query at enquiry@netsolwater.com.


April 14, 2021

The relationship between TDS (total dissolved solids) and conductivity depends on the water chemistry. For example, 1,000 mg/L of NaCl will give a different conductivity than 1,000 mg/L of MgSO4. The very rough rule of thumb is TDS, mg/L × 1.6 = Conductivity (µS/cm). The factor of 1.6 used in the equation has a typical range of 1.4 to 1.8, though wider variations are certainly possible.

When possible, the best correlation is developed from the analysis of specific water or waste stream for both TDS and conductivity from which a specific correlation factor is produced. Then, if the water chemistry remains fairly constant, conductivity can serve as a good indication of TDS. If the water chemistry changes significantly, the rule of thumb will not work.

Netsol Water Solutions is the largest and India’s leading Sewage Treatment Plant Manufacturer, Effluent treatment plant manufacturer, commercial ro plant, and industrial ro plant manufacturer having its own manufacturing unit in Greater Noida, Delhi, India.

For any kind of Query or Requirement of Water and wastewater treatment products, call us at +91-9650608473 or you can email us enquiry@netsolwater.com.

We are Indias Largest and a leading trusted brand for STP Plant, ETP Plants, and RO Plants.

Greater Noida


We are the leading Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) Manufacturer & Supplier, in the Delhi-Noida, India.
+ 91-9650608473




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