tss calculation - Sewage Treatment Plant Manufacturer

February 28, 2023

Top 10 Tips to Reduce BOD or TSS in Sewage Treatment

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) are two of the most crucial parameters in wastewater treatment (BOD). You may already be aware of the significance of controlling your TSS and BOD for the following key factors:

  • TSS/BOD levels need to meet state environmental protection laws.
  • High TSS levels can hurt wildlife badly and make water tasteless or even harmful to human health.
  • High TSS levels can harm your wastewater equipment and affect its performance.
  • Aquatic life can be harmed or killed by high BOD.

Fortunately, there are some simple ways to maintain control over your BOD and TSS. The greatest techniques for minimizing BOD and TSS that facility managers should be aware of are as follows:

1. Focusing first on reducing TSS from wastewater.

TSS reductions usually always occur with BOD reductions. To remove large solids, start by using mechanical screens like roto-strainers or bar screens. Also, this will prevent blockage or damage to your downstream DAF (dissolved air flotation) equipment.

2. Obtain an EQ tank that is the right size.

Excessive amounts or underfeeding of flocculants and coagulants can result from changes in flow and loading rates. Your flow and loading rates will be more distributed equally with a properly sized EQ tank. Also, this will aid in the right sizing of the polymer make-down feeder, reducing your startup expenses.

3. Optimize the waste stream’s pH.

There is a certain pH range where effective wastewater treatment chemistry works at its maximum effectiveness. The polymer will be wasted or rendered useless if the pH moves up and down to either side of this window.

4. Add a plastic or stainless steel DAF plate pack that is the latest.

Your TSS removal rates will increase with a current plate pack DAF. Also, it will reduce the DAF’s footprint and give you more flow and load sensitivity latitude.

5. Utilize an air dissolution pump with a regenerative turbine.

An aeration pump with a regenerative turbine consumes minimal electricity to dissolve air in the water and create 20–30–micron air bubbles. They are essential for the effective treatment of DAF.

6. Purchase a DAF that self-cleans.

Around every two weeks, takedown and cleaning are needed for modern high-rate DAFs. Also, forgetting to clean it could result in blockage, issues with solids separation, increased chemical input rates and increased TSS. Choose a DAF that is self-draining and self-cleaning to save yourself a lot of work compared to cleaning it yourself. Cleanout valves or pumps are provided by properly built DAF systems to remove resistant, heavy, settled solids.

7. When possible, use liquid chemistry that has been performance-tested.

Liquid chemistry opens up a huge variety of treatment chemistries, removes wetting difficulties and fish eyes (clumps of undissolved polymer particles), and enables complete automation of the process at a reasonable cost. Also, switching products is considerably simpler than waiting or throwing away a palette of dry bag polymer when a drum or tote runs out.

8. Use a system for flow-proportional dosing and make-down.

You should still utilize a flow proportional dosing system to allow for flow cycling even if your EQ tank is the correct size. A flow metre with a 4-20 ma output signal to the chemical feed system is what you want to find. More consistency, better overall treatment removal, and less chemical use will result from this.

9. Find and test the appropriate chemical injection locations.

The coagulant should ideally be transfused initially, as far upstream as possible. In advance of the transfer pump, here is where the wastewater would exit the EQ tank. Fill a pot on the flocculation tube with the polymer. To determine the coagulant dose for pin floc production, a sample tap needs to be put in front of the polymer injection port. Prior to entering the DAF, a sample port downstream of the polymer injection port analyzes the efficiency of your chemicals. Before the effluent exits the DAF, you can then make modifications.

10. Require DAF equipment of the proper size.

The effects of chemical therapy are limited. Poor TSS removal rates and chemical treatment failure will come from a DAF or chemical feed equipment that is too small. The output and flow rates of organizations are constantly rising, so you need to size your equipment with future increases in mind. Many of these problems are the consequence of a breakdown in the operation or maintenance of the DAF equipment, not the chemical program.

Netsol Water is Greater Noida-based leading water & wastewater treatment plant manufacturer. We are the industry’s most demanding company based on client review and work quality. We are known as the best commercial RO plant manufacturersindustrial RO plant manufacturerssewage treatment plant manufacturersWater Softener Plant Manufacturers, and effluent treatment plant manufacturers. Apart from this 24×7 customer support is our USP. Call on +91-9650608473, or write us at enquiry@netsolwater.com for any support, inquiry, or product-purchase-related query.


January 9, 2023

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Environmental Change has advised the updated CPCB Guidelines for Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) working at different industrial clusters in the country. The primary point of the revised standards is to minimize water contamination. These standards were finalized after extensive consultations with industries and different partners and detailed deliberations with the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The changed norms were notified on January 1, 2016. The changed norms will help fundamentally work on the performance of CETPs through the implementation of design inlet quality, resolving the issues of coastal pollution because of industrial discharges, and keeping a close watch on the effect of the release of industrial effluent on soil and groundwater quality.

The Guidelines given for CETP by CPCB Guidelines for Common Effluent Treatment Plants are as per the following:

CPCB Guidelines for Common Effluent Treatment Plants

1- The Centre has advised the revised standards for Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) working at different industrial groups in the country with an aim to minimize water contamination.

2- The Environment Ministry notified the norms which were concluded after broad counsel with industries and other partners and point-by-point thoughts with the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

3- “The Environment Ministry has notified the revised standards for Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) working at different industrial groups in the country. The primary point of the revised standards is to minimize water contamination,” an official statement said today, adding that the revised standards were notified on January 1.

4- The revised standards will help in essentially working on the performance of CETPs through the implementation of design inlet quality, addressing the issues of coastal contamination because of industrial discharges.

5- It will also help in further improving the CETP’s performance by close watch on the effect of the discharge of industrial effluent on soil and groundwater quality.

6- Under the revised standards, an provision of soil and groundwater quality checking two times per year (pre-and post-monsoon) has been introduced.

7- This has been introduced with a concentrate on the effect of removal of treated effluent on land, in case of the method of removal is ‘on land for irrigation’ and the monitoring will be done by the separate CETP management.

8- “The method of ‘Discharge into the ocean’ (marine outfalls) giving extremely high dilution will qualify all requirements for a relaxed maximum permissible concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).

9- “The maximum permissible concentration of Fixed Dissolved Solids (FDS) by constituent units to CETP has been determined as far as maximum admissible contribution value,” the statement added.

10- Status report by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) consistent with the National Green Court order May 21, 2020, in Original Application No. 593/2017 (Paryavaran Suraksha Samiti and Others Vs Union of India and Others) with Original Application No. 148/2016 (Mahesh Chandra Saxena Vs South Delhi Municipal Corporation and Others).

11- The report of September 16, 2020, contained the state-wise consistency status of all industries generating trade effluent and requiring effluent treatment plants (ETP) – as reported by the state pollution control board (SPCB)/pollution control committee (PCC). According to the information got from SPCBs/PCCs:

  • Out of a total 64,484 number of industries requiring ETPs, 62,653 industries are working with functional ETPs and 1,831 industries are working without ETPs.
  • 61,530 industries are complying with environmental norms and 1,123 industries are noncomplying.
  • There are a complete 191 CETPs, out of which 129 CETPs are agreeing with environmental standards and 62 CETPs are non-complying.
  • There is a total of 15,730 STPs (including municipal and other than municipal (non-municipal/independent) STPs), out of which, 15,200 STPs are agreeing with environmental guidelines and 530 STPs are non-complying.
  • There are 84 CETPs in the construction/proposal stage, whereas, for STPs, 1,081 tasks (municipal and non-municipal) are under the construction/proposal stage.

The report also contained an assessment of the effect of the lockdown on the water quality of major rivers. During the pre-lockdown period  (March 2020), SPCBs gathered samples from 388 locations through 366 samples from the checking locations during lockdown (April 2020) from 19 major rivers, and collected samples were analyzed for Primary Water Quality Measures for Washing Water Quality Standards notified under the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.

CPCB Common Effluent Treatment Plant

CPCB Common Effluent Treatment Plant

CPCB Common Effluent Treatment Plant

January 6, 2023

According to the legal guidelines for Sewage Treatment Plants gave by CPCB, different infrastructures like Apartments, Commercial Development Projects, Educational Institutions, Municipalities, and Area Advancement Undertakings meeting specific models need to introduce STPs for the treatment of sewage that they produce.

The guideline rules cover angles in regards to the area of STPs, the STP technology to take on, working as well as its maintenance to guarantee effective and safe activity of the machinery.

The Guidelines gave for STPs by CPCB Guidelines for Sewage Treatment Plants are as per the following:

CPCB Guidelines for Sewage Treatment Plants

1. The Technology of STP

The approved STP technologies to go with are-

  1. Activated Sludge Process (ASP) (just when over 500 KLD sewage is generated).
  2. Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)
  3. Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR)

2. Unit Requirements of STP

STPs have different individual units where different sewage treatment processes happen. The units and their criteria according to the guideline’s prerequisite are as per the following.

SNo. Unit Activated Sludge Process (ASP) Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR)
1 Equalization Tank Should have a minimum holding period of 8 hours Same as ASP Same as ASP Same as ASP
2 Anoxic Tank Return activated sludge should be pumped to anoxic tank for denitrification. Not Required Same as ASP Same as ASP
3 Aeration Tank Dissolved Oxygen in an excess of 4 mg/L has to be maintained in the Aeration Tank. Same as ASP Same as ASP Same as ASP
4 Membrane Tank Not Required Not Required Membranes should be replaced regularly as per its manufacturer’s specifications Not Required
5 Sludge Holding Tank Sludge holding should be madatoriliy provided for holding excess sludge before its dewatering. Same as ASP Same as ASP Same as ASP
6 Final Treated Water Holding Tank Capacity of the tank should be enough to hold water for 2 days minimum. Same as ASP Same as ASP Same as ASP
7 Sludge Drying Bed Instead of sludge drying bed, horozontal centrifuge system should be used for >500KLD STPs.


For <500 KLD STPs, belt press or screw press system should be used.

Same as ASP Same as ASP Same as ASP

3. Mechanical Equipment Requirement for STP

There should to be clear and simple access to the Bar Screen Chamber and Oil and Grease Chamber of STPs introduced. Likewise, the supplies should to be of the submersible sort with a simple removal/it is expected to destroy choice at whatever maintenance is required.

Air blowers of STP should to have Vibration mounts and acoustic fenced in areas to diminish the noise pollution.

4. Location of STP

STP should to be situated under the driveway, play area, or clubhouses, and distant from the residential housings to not make any subtlety individuals living.

Additionally, STP should not be installed in that basement of any structure or building. Admittance to the STP room should to be from Ground Level or Upper Basement through all around designed walkways or headroom, and not from the lowest basement to stay away from subtleties that might occur because of rain flooding, smell or sound.

5. Treated Sewage Standards

The sewage treated should meet the following standards.

S NO. Parameter Required Standards
1 pH 6.5-8.5
2 BOD(5th Day) <10mg/l
3 COD <50mg/l
4 Suspended Solids <10mg/l
5 Ammonical Nitrogen <5mg/l
6 Total Nitrogen <5mg/l
7 Fecal Coliform <100MPN/100ml

6. Guidelines for installing sensors

It’s compulsory to introduce sensors for observing sewage parameters like BOD, COD, TSS, stream, and pH.

The CPCB suggested sensor types with their correspondence conventions are as per the following.

S. No. Parameter Measurement Type Sensor Type Communication Type
1 pH Inline Ion Selective Glass Electrodes RS 485 Communication with Modbus
2 TSS Inline Turbidity to TSS correlation with

Nephelometric technique

RS 485 Communication with Modbus
3 BOD Inline UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

& combustion(Double beam

with entire spectrum scanning

RS 485 Communication with Modbus
4 COD Inline UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

& combustion(Double beam

with entire spectrum scanning

RS 485 Communication with Modbus
5 Flow Inline Electromagnetic Flow Measurement RS 485 Communication with Modbus


7. Caution Board at STP

Legitimate preventative billboards should to be displayed and security conventions should to be followed at the STP locations.

“Danger” Sign Sheets should to be introduced at the STP area for the maintenance personals and general public. What’s more “water not well for drinking” should to likewise be featured at the taps conveying sewage water.

8. Use of Treated Sewage

The treated water should to be compulsorily utilized for toilet flushing purposes that should to have a double pipes system.

9. Modular Operations of STPs

Modern activity of STPs suggests that the STP should to be created/developed in smaller units so it tends to be utilized according to the heap or inhabitance of individuals. In huge tasks where a higher limit of STPs required, the inhabitance in the underlying stages can’t meet the functional measures of the STP Plants. Thus, the component should to be viewed as in the plan stage itself.


March 18, 2021

TSS stands for Total Suspended Solids. TSS is that suspended particles (Dry-weight) in water that is not dissolved, can be trapped by a filter by using a filtration system in a sample of water. It is also a major water quality parameter used to access the specimen by any type of water or waterbody, for example, ocean water or wastewater after the treatment in the wastewater treatment plant.

Total Dissolved solid acquired through separate analysis to determine water quality. In previous, TSS is also known as a non-Filterable residue (NFR), changed due to a nonproper understanding of other scientific disciplines.

How Does TSS Affect the Water Quality?

When you are talking about water quality, due to the high level of total suspended solids the temperature of the water is dramatically increased and the total dissolved oxygen level decreases. This all happens just because the suspended particles absorb extra heat from solar radiation than the normal water molecules do.

How TSS Is Measure in water or wastewater treatment

The most accurate and common method of measuring the TSS is by weight. A water sample is filtered, dried, and weighed. This method is most accurate in all other techniques of measuring Total Suspended Solids. Sometimes it is also difficult and takes more time for perfect results.

What is the Total Suspended Solids calculation Formula (mg/L)?

TSS in water or wastewater treatment plant calculated in milligram per litter as per the following given equation:

(Dry weight of residue and filter – the dry weight of filter alone, in grams) / ml of samples * 10,00,000

How to lower your Total suspended solids in Wastewater Treatment?

The most important measure in the Wastewater treatment plant is TSS. Total suspended solids level must have adhered to state environmental regulation. Because high TSS levels can harm wildlife and dangerous to human health. Your wastewater treatment equipment also can be damaged by elevated TSS.  By following some of the given effective ways to keep your TSS under Control.

  • Focuses on removing first TSS from wastewater
  • Used a properly sized EQ Tank (Equalizer Tank). This will help to maintain the flow and loading rate.
  • Control over the pH of the wastewater. It is the basic and most important to manage the pH Level. To know more read: What is ph in wastewater?
  • Use modern stainless steel or plastic make plate pack DAF.
  • Use of the regenerative air dissolution turbine pump uses minimal electricity to dissolve air into water. This may lead to producing 20-30 micron air bubbles.
  • Use high rated modern DAF which cleans by you to avoid facing clogging, solids separation problems, higher TSS, and high chemical feed rate.
  • Use performance-tested liquid chemistry which allows for full automation to lower the cost, and eliminates the wetting issue.
  • Locate properly chemical injection points and always test them.

By reading the above point you are able to know that how to control TSS, which is a crucial part of your wastewater treatment plant.

If you are looking for the best quality Sewage Treatment Plant in India (Any part of the Country), Kindly make us a call at +91-9650608473 or write your requirement on enquiry@netsolwater.com

Netsol Water is a top-rated sewage treatment plant manufacturer, effluent treatment plant manufacturer, Commercial RO Plant manufacturer in Delhi | Noida | Ghaziabad | Faridabad | Greater Noida | Mumbai | Chennai | Goa | Lucknow | Bihar | Patna | Uttrakhand | Himachal Pradesh.

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